price or rental for these products. While these materials are not
absolutely essential to implementation and ongoing outcomes management
in a program of pressure ulcer prevention, the use of these products
may help simplify the process.
The mission of Prevention Plus is to provide health care professionals
with a simple way to obtain information related to the Braden Scale
for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk and its appropriate use in a program
of prevention of pressure ulcers. We are committed to providing
accurate, evidence-based information and practical tools to the
many health professionals who are striving to improve the quality
of care in their facilities or agencies.
of the Braden Scale
The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk was developed
during a Robert Wood Johnson Teaching Nursing Home project and while
writing an NIH proposal to study pressure ulcer risk factors. The
Braden Scale was initially tested for reliability and validity and
these results were published in Nursing Research in 1987. A larger
multi-site study was conducted to determine the reliability and
validity of the tool in a variety of settings resulting in revisions
in the recommendations for the critical cutoff score and the timing
of assessment. Results were published in Nursing Research in 1998.
A follow-up report in Nursing Research in 2002 demonstrated that
the tool could be used in Black and White subjects with similar
validity. This tool is in use on all continents and has been translated
into many languages, including Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Indonesian,
Italian, German, Portuguese, Polish, Arabic, Finnish, Norwegian,
Icelandic, Flemish, Croatian, Dutch and French. Two tools have undergone
formal translation validation and are included on this Web site.
The Braden Scale
has been disseminated widely, translated into many languages, and
is used to some extent around the world-wide. A recent systematic
review by Pancorbo-Hildalgo and colleagues (2006) examined studies
of various risk assessment tools published in Spanish, English,
French and Portuguese and performed a meta-analysis to determine
which of the many risk assessment tools available demonstrated the
best reliability and validity. They compared the Braden Scale, Norton
Scale, and the Waterlow Scale. They concluded that the Braden Scale
had been tested in the largest number of studies, had demonstrated
the best reliability and validity indicators in a variety of settings,
and was a better predictor of pressure ulcers than nursing judgment.